Bruce A. Beutler

Jules A. Hoffmann
"for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"

Ralph M. Steinman
"for his discovery of the dendritic cell and its role in adaptive immunity".

Robert G. Edwards
"for the development of in vitro fertilization"
Elizabeth H. Blackburn

Carol W. Greider

Jack W. Szostak
"for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase"
2008 Harald zur Hausen "for his discovery of human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer"
Françoise Barré-Sinoussi
Luc Montagnier
"for their discovery of human immunodeficiency virus"
2007 Mario R. Capecchi
Sir Martin J. Evans
Oliver Smithies
"for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells"
2006 Andrew Z. Fire
Craig C. Mello
"for their discovery of RNA interference - gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"
2005 Barry J. Marshall
J. Robin Warren
"for their discovery of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori and its role in gastritis and peptic ulcer disease"
2004 Richard Axel
Linda B. Buck
"for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
2003 Paul C. Lauterbur
Sir Peter Mansfield
"for their discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging"
2002 Sydney Brenner
H. Robert Horvitz
John E. Sulston
"for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death'"
2001 Leland H. Hartwell
Tim Hunt
Sir Paul M. Nurse
"for their discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle"
2000 Arvid Carlsson
Paul Greengard
Eric R. Kandel
"for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system"
1999 Günter Blobel "for the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell"
1998 Robert F. Furchgott
Louis J. Ignarro
Ferid Murad
"for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"
1997 Stanley B. Prusiner "for his discovery of Prions - a new biological principle of infection"
1996 Peter C. Doherty
Rolf M. Zinkernagel
"for their discoveries concerning the specificity of the cell mediated immune defence"
1995 Edward B. Lewis
Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard
Eric F. Wieschaus
"for their discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development"
1994 Alfred G. Gilman
Martin Rodbell
"for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"
1993 Richard J. Roberts
Phillip A. Sharp
"for their discoveries of split genes"
1992 Edmond H. Fischer
Edwin G. Krebs
"for their discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism"
1991 Erwin Neher Bert Sakmann "for their discoveries concerning the function of single ion channels in cells"
1990 Joseph E. Murray
E. Donnall Thomas
"for their discoveries concerning organ and cell transplantation in the treatment of human disease"
1989 J. Michael Bishop
Harold E. Varmus
"for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral oncogenes"
1988 Sir James W. Black
Gertrude B. Elion
George H. Hitchings
"for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"
1987 Susumu Tonegawa "for his discovery of the genetic principle for generation of antibody diversity"
1986 Stanley Cohen
Rita Levi-Montalcini
"for their discoveries of growth factors"
1985 Michael S. Brown
Joseph L. Goldstein
"for their discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism"
1984 Niels K. Jerne
Georges J.F. Köhler
César Milstein
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the immune system and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"
1983 Barbara McClintock "for her discovery of mobile genetic elements"
1982 Sune K. Bergström
Bengt I. Samuelsson
John R. Vane
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances"
1981 Roger W. Sperry "for his discoveries concerning the functional specialization of the cerebral hemispheres"
David H. Hubel
Torsten N. Wiesel
"for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system"
1980Baruj Benacerraf
Jean Dausset
George D. Snell
"for their discoveries concerning genetically determined structures on the cell surface that regulate immunological reactions"
1979Allan M. Cormack
Godfrey N. Hounsfield
"for the development of computer assisted tomography"
1978Werner Arber
Daniel Nathans
Hamilton O. Smith
"for the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics"
1977 Roger Guillemin
Andrew V. Schally
"for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"
Rosalyn Yalow"for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"
1976Baruch S. Blumberg
D. Carleton Gajdusek
"for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of infectious diseases"
1975David Baltimore
Renato Dulbecco
Howard Martin Temin
"for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumour viruses and the genetic material of the cell"
1974Albert Claude
Christian de Duve
George E. Palade
"for their discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell"
1973Karl von Frisch
Konrad Lorenz
Nikolaas Tinbergen
"for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns"
1972Gerald M. Edelman
Rodney R. Porter
"for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of antibodies"
1971Earl W. Sutherland, Jr. "for his discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones"
1970Sir Bernard Katz
Ulf von Euler
Julius Axelrod
"for their discoveries concerning the humoral transmittors in the nerve terminals and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"
1969Max Delbrück
Alfred D. Hershey
Salvador E. Luria
"for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses"
1968Robert W. Holley
Har Gobind Khorana
Marshall W. Nirenberg
"for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis"
1967Ragnar Granit
Haldan Keffer Hartline
George Wald
"for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"
1966Peyton Rous "for his discovery of tumour-inducing viruses"
Charles Brenton Huggins "for his discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer"
1965François Jacob
André Lwoff Jacques Monod
"for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"
1964Konrad Bloch
Feodor Lynen
"for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism"
1963Sir John Carew Eccles
Alan Lloyd Hodgkin
Andrew Fielding Huxley
"for their discoveries concerning the ionic mechanisms involved in excitation and inhibition in the peripheral and central portions of the nerve cell membrane"
1962Francis Harry Compton Crick
James Dewey Watson
Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins
"for their discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material"
1961Georg von Békésy "for his discoveries of the physical mechanism of stimulation within the cochlea"
1960Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet
Peter Brian Medawar
"for discovery of acquired immunological tolerance"
1959 Severo Ochoa
Arthur Kornberg
"for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of ribonucleic acid and deoxyribonucleic acid"
1958George Wells Beadle
Edward Lawrie Tatum
"for their discovery that genes act by regulating definite chemical events"
Joshua Lederberg "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the genetic material of bacteria"
1957 Daniel Bovet "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their action on the vascular system and the skeletal muscles"
1956 André Frédéric Cournand
Werner Forssmann
Dickinson W. Richards
"for their discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system"
1955Axel Hugo Theodor Theorell "for his discoveries concerning the nature and mode of action of oxidation enzymes"
1954 John Franklin Enders
Thomas Huckle Weller
Frederick Chapman Robbins
"for their discovery of the ability of poliomyelitis viruses to grow in cultures of various types of tissue"
1953Hans Adolf Krebs
Fritz Albert Lipmann
"for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"
"for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"
1952 Selman Abraham Waksman "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first antibiotic effective against tuberculosis"
1951Max Theiler "for his discoveries concerning yellow fever and how to combat it"
1950Edward Calvin Kendall
Tadeus Reichstein
Philip Showalter Hench
"for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects"